My Quin Story’s Guide to Peptides


My readers know that I am not a doctor and I always assume that my readers are responsible for the safety and legality of their medical decisions.  Besides that,  I always recommend that you consult a medical professional before making any changes that affect your health. Having said that, this section of Hacking Fluoroquinolones is met to be an introduction to the use of peptides to help heal conditions related to FQAD. Keep in mind it’s focus is from the FQAD perspective and additionally, it is meant to be a starting point and not meant to be a comprehensive resource. Also, Peptides are novel compounds that may have side effects which are not fully addressed here or understood, especially in the floxed population. Plus they could pose other dangers such as impurities or variations in concentrations, etc…

Many of these compounds are originally meant to promote growth in various ways (muscle, veins, etc…), and theoretically some could increase cancer proliferation, although I am not aware of any such incidents in humans, either research or anecdotally. Conversely, there is some good data that some of them may also reduce cancer risk or improve survival rates. Without long term human studies, and it is unlikely that this will ever happen due to the lack of incentive in a pharma ruled research world (no profit-no research), it is impossible to always quantify the risks. Again, it is your responsibility to determine the risk/reward ratio and if the potential benefits justify the risks.

My own conclusion is that many self-experiments into peptides have proven invaluable to the medical knowledge and to the patients that are desperately seeking sage and effective treatments. For those brave and intrepid citizen-scientists who pursue the search for truth, I salute you.

This document will be updated as data comes in, so check back often. 

Last updated: 01/27/2021


Over the last decade or so I have seen research into healing modalities for Fluoroquinolone Toxicity progress very, very slowly for many reasons, of which I will not go into detail here.   On top of that, I very rarely get excited about new healing opportunities, but perhaps one of the greatest new modalities that I believe has the ability to offer the greatest impact in healing some aspects of FQAD has come from peptides. This is not only because they do wonders on their own, but they seem to compliment other healing modalities.

When people first hear about the variety of peptides, and the potent positive effects they offer, they are often skeptical.  I understand, because was. I am naturally skeptical, especially when it something sounds too good to be true.  Combine this with the fact that many of these substances require injections, most doctors are not familiar with them, they may not be FDA approved, or even studied in humans, all adds to the complexity.  Despite all this, for some people have been extremely helpful. Nevertheless, the bottom line is that it is your responsibility to determine what is safe and appropriate for you; how far you are will to go to pursue healing. I do not intend that this article is comprehensive enough to allow you to make any determination whether peptides could help you are not, instead it is designed to help you begin navigating the world of peptides.

What is a peptide? Your body makes smaller chains of amino acids as a way of communicating between tissues, and regulating various processes in the body. These short sequences of amino acids are called peptides. In a modern context that everyone should be familiar with, you can think of a peptide as an email, with the individual amino acids representing specific words within that email. If you put amino acids together in the right sequence or order, like a sentence formed with the right words, you can engage natural processes in the body.

It’s also worth mentioning that not everything with “peptide” on the packaging has health benefits.  For the definition of this guide a peptide is a sequence of amino acids that have positive impacts beyond the individual (constituent) amino acids themselves.  The amino acids must be  assembled in the appropriate sequence to enact change.

In this guide there are suggested dosages. Despite this individual needs and tolerances could vary substantially and need to be considered because of this the dosages mentioned are just examples for discussion and not to be construed as any sort of medical fact.  It is important as with starting out with any new supplement, drug or food, everyone should start with low doses to test tolerance.   This is especially true for anyone with immune issues or a tendency towards histamine reactions.  These individuals should be especially cautious. Over the years, I’ve encountered people who have reacted strongly to the most benign substances and this could be due to potency variations or factors that vary between individuals.  It is always better to discover these issues at low dosages. You can always add more, but once you inject something, you can’t pull it back out.


BPC-157 is a peptide that is a partial sequence of body protection compound that is derived from human gastric juice. Research shows that BPC-157 heightens the healing of many different types of tissue from tendon, muscle, and the nervous system, thus making it potentially useful for healing damages from Fluoroquinolone Toxicity. It can also increase blood flow back to injured sites, protect organs, prevent stomach ulcers and heal skin burns.

Note: There are a few versions of BPC-157. They all have the same active amino acid sequence, but variations alter the stability. The newest form is BPC-157 Stable Version, which incorporates the amino acid arginine. It is stable in gastric juice and is resistant to breakdown from heat and UV. It seems to be effective when taken orally for stomach and intestinal issues, and rodent studies have shown that oral administration has systemic effects on peripheral injuries. Rats aren’t always a reliable indication of human impact, however.

Oral vs Injectable: I have talked to people with connective tissue problems from FQAD, and some with EDS who were floxed, that have used BPC-157 were confident that using injected BPC-157 (acetate or arginine versions) provided some help in one way or another.   BPC can be available in pill form, although injectable is much more systemically potent, and some people believe that oral administration is helpful to a certain extent, especially for digestive issues. This does not mean the oral version isn’t effective, but often widespread damage, may require more BPC-157 reaching the bloodstream than is achieved just through oral administration of typical doses. FQAD sufferers vary, and some probably don’t justify injections and they just might respond well to oral administration. Again, it may be that oral BPC might work better for gastrointestinal problems, but overall injections for severe widespread tissue appears to be the most efficacious. 

The more common form (acetate) is effective for injection, but breaks down fairly quickly in gastric juice. BPC-157 is often paired with Growth Hormone secretagogues to boost the healing effects.

BPC-157 Stable is available through Nootroo as BeePC, and in capsules from Tailor Made Health. There is another company, Dr. Seeds, that is looked upon as suspect by many in the peptide community. BeePC is sourced from Diagen, the patent holder. You may encounter a source called BioPure Supplements, the owner has repeatedly misrepresented scientific research, and distorted data, thus many have no confidence in their products.

Names: BPC-157 Stable, BPC-157 Stable Version, BPC 157 di-L-arginine salt, Arg-BPC-157. In studies it may be referred to as “Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157”.

BPC-157 acetate (most common version) names: BPC-157 acetate, BPC-157, Body Protecting Compound 157, bepecin, Pentadecapeptide 157. There were human trials using BPC-157 under the drug name PL 14736.

Origin: The sequence of amino acids was identified within a gastric peptide (BPC/Body Protection Compound) which protects the gastrointestinal tract by promoting healing and blood vessel growth. The intestines have thin walls to allow nutrient absorption, which leaves them vulnerable to physical damage and intrusion from gut bacteria.

Impact: BPC-157 significantly improves wound healing by increasing fibroblast activity. It’s impacts are especially strong in connective tissue, but it has a positive impact on many tissues and systems. Some highlights from studies (from

  • BPC-157 significantly improves healing after the following injuries: skin incisions; deep skin burns; various anastomoses as intestinal wounds; diabetic wounds; various fistulas; various tissue transections, particularly ligament, tendon, muscle and nerve. Healing time of all these injuries is significantly decreased with BPC-157 administration.
  • BPC-157 prevents scar tissue buildup after injury, and reduces already existing scar tissue
  • BPC-157 modulates the immune system and activates macrophages in the immune system, which leads to increased production of growth factors that fight infections, ultimately strengthening the immune system.
  • BPC-157 significantly prolongs survival of rats with carcinoma and melanoma B-16 cancers, from 25 days to 45+ days.
  • BPC-157 prevents development of gastric ulcers and heals existing gastric ulcers by reducing the ulcer area and accelerating the rebuilding of glandular epithelium and formation of granulation tissue.
  • BPC-157 successfully reduces several models of acute, non-specific inflammation.
  • BPC-157 acts against temperature decrease (i.e. water immersion test) and increase (yeast- induced).
  • BPC-157 increases pain threshold in carrageenan test in rats.
  • BPC-157, given before infection of rats with hepatitis A virus, Lymphatic Choriomeningitis (LCM) virus and herpes virus types 1 and 2, completely prevented all signs of infection and disease.
  • BPC-157 given to rats after viral infection delays onset of disease symptoms and decreases death.

Research summaries: Explanation of BPC-157 Stable, summary of studies, summary, research summary, mechanisms and potential side effects from AnabolicDoc

Specific studies (abstracts): BPC-157’s effect on healing, BPC 157 cream improves burn-wound healing, BPC 157 modulatory effect on angiogenesis in muscle and tendon healing, BPC 157 and NO-system relation (the authors state that BPC-157 exhibits high safety and a lethal dose has not been found). BPC 157 enhances the growth hormone receptor expression in tendon fibroblasts, Brain-gut Axis and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157: Theoretical and Practical Implications, Therapeutic potential of pro-angiogenic BPC157, BPC 157 and Standard Angiogenic Growth Factors, BPC 157 accelerating musculoskeletal soft tissue healing, BPC 157 in traumatic nerve injury, a collection of BPC-157 studies

Videos:  BPC 157 for Gut & Musculoskeletal Healing, Dr Timmermans, BPC-157 effects and delivery methods (discussion of GI), Dr Moeller, Live Like A Viking summary of effects and reconstitution process, BPC-157 discussion with Ryan Smith from Tailor Made Compounding, Repair and Recovery with Peptide Therapy, Ryan Smith, Tailor Made Compounding

Cautions:  A small number of people who have used BPC-157 have reported an unusual adverse effect called anhedonia.  The user usually reports reduced motivation or the ability to experience pleasure.  It is theorized this effect is cause by BPC’s effects on dopamine.  As mentioned above, BPC’s healing is often seen as system-wide from neurotransmitters to muscle and tendon.  Another, side effect reported seems to affect those who suffer from MAST cell disorders.  It appears the BPC can cause histamine reactions in some people.  Pairing BPC with TB-500 seems to mitigate these side effects in some people.  Far more people have reports histamine problems than have reported anhedonia.  If you’re immune system is on overdrive it might be a good idea to start real low with the BPC-157 and see how you react. Studies have gotten good results with shockingly small injection doses in rats (10 nanograms/kg). It doesn’t last long in the body, so 2-3 small doses per day may be more effective than one larger dose anyway.

Dosage & delivery methods

  1. Subcutaneous injection (most potent systemic effects): How to prepare BPC-157, Subcutaneous injection demo
    1. Dosage: Tailor Made Compounding Catalog (BPC-157: page 8/15) suggests 300mcg 1x/day for 30 days. Many people have used 250mcg injections 2x/day with good results. The minimum effective dose in rodent studies may be as low as 1mcg/kg bodyweight, but up to 10mcg/kg is also used. Hypothetically, a person could start with 100mcg 1x/day and slowly increase dosage and frequency.  
  2. Oral (good option for GI issues, some systemic effect):  The Stable Version is especially appropriate orally, this video discusses dosing.
    1. Dosage: 500mcg capsules 2x/day seems to be common. If using a powder such as BeePC, a person could mix 5mg BPC-157 Stable Version with 10ml bacteriostatic water in a dropper bottle. That would deliver 500mcg per 1ml (about 20 drops). Or 5mg could be mixed with 5ml, in which case 1/2ml (about 10 drops) would deliver 500mcg. It could also be weighed into capsules. advises 250mcg of their Stable BPC liquid sublingually 2x/day, but a person could just swallow it.

Final note on BPC-157: People do report great results from subcutaneous injection of both the standard (acetate) and the stable (arginine) versions.

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Names: Ipamorelin, developmental code name NNC 26-0161. Ipamorelin is a Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide, and there are other GHRPs.

 Origin: Ipamorelin is a short peptide sequence capable of binding to the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor, replicating the growth hormone releasing effect of ghrelin without unpleasant side effects. It is one of the most selective growth hormone secretagogues known and has been shown in laboratory studies to have no effect on ACTH, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, or cortisol release.

 Impact: By injecting Ipamorelin subcutaneously, it induces the pituitary to release stored growth hormone into the bloodstream. This growth hormone has a variety of effects, which may include decreased body fat, increased collagen production, increased lean muscle mass, improved sleep, increased cellular repair and regeneration, increased bone density, and reduced catabolism. Besides increasing overall GH, Ipamorelin also releases it in a pulse. As we age, we lose the pulsatile release and our GH trickles out in an ineffective manner. By restoring the pulse of GH it can reach the tissues throughout the body more effectively.

 Research summaries: Multiple Effects of Growth Hormone in the Body: Is it Really the Hormone for Growth?, List of Ipamorelin benefits from

 Specific studies: Growth hormone stimulates the collagen synthesis in human tendon and skeletal muscle without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis,

 Videos: TMC Ipamorelin and CJC 1295

 Delivery & dosage: TMC peptide guide (page 20) recommends 200mcg subcutaneously 1x/day, 5x/week paired with CJC 1295. Ipamorelin is a GHRP, it should be paired with a GHRH. Some people use 200-300mcg up to 3x/day, spaced 4+hrs apart.  Note: Some people advocate a lower dose, such as 100mcg Ipamorelin and Mod-GRF. The idea is that going beyond that only increases GH by a small percentage and isn’t as cost effective. I don’t have a study to point to, but this is addressed in the DatBtrue archive.

Cautions: It is recommended to start Ipamorelin at a very low dose due to anecdotal reports of allergic reactions, some of them at larger doses. 

Timing: The standard advice is to wait 2-3hrs after eating, and don’t eat for 1/2hr after injection. The reason being that Insulin interferes with GH, so injecting in a fasted state is suggested for maximum effect. However, when a GHRH and GHRP are used together it may not matter, as suggested by this bovine study. GH release is also blocked by the presence of somatostatin. Again, a GHRH/GHRP combo may overcome this, or it may be worth timing your injections when somatostatin is low, and the body is primed to release GH. This page has a graph of natural GH release. This reasoning would suggest the evening is a good time, shortly before bed. There may also be a good opportunity immediately after waking. The night time release is more likely timed off of darkness, rather than the clock. Wearing blue blocking glasses 1-2 hours before bed encourages melatonin production and reduce somatostatin which can increase the effectiveness of the GH secretagogues. Again, this may all be unnecessary with GHRH/GHRP combos, I don’t know for sure.

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Mod-GRF (1-29) aka CJC-1295 without DAC

Names: CJC-1295 w/o DAC, CJC-1295 No DAC, Modified GRF (1-29)

 Origin: Mod-GRF (1-29) is a slightly modified version of a peptide sequence in Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH).

Impact: Mod-GRF increases the number of cells that respond to a GHRP such as Ipamorelin, potentially delivering 5x the pulse compared to Ipamorelin alone. Even if you don’t want a huge pulse of GH, using low doses of both together is much more cost effective than either compound separately.

Research summaries: summary of modified-grf-1-29, current research findings on CJC 1295,

Videos: TMC Ipamorelin and CJC 1295

Delivery & dosage: The TMC peptide guide (page 11) recommends 200mcg subcutaneously 1x/day, 5x/week (paired with Ipamorelin). Some guides suggest 100mcg is adequate, and seems to be the most prudent. Again, it’s important to note that insulin significantly diminishes the impact of GH, so injecting in a fasted state is crucial for maximum effect. The standard advice is to wait 2-3hrs after eating, and don’t eat for 1/2hr after injection. Read the Timing info for Ipamorelin.

What is DAC?: Drug Affinity Complex, or DAC, is a chemical complex attached to the peptide sequence which prevents breakdown by the enzyme peptidase and excretion by the liver. This results in a drastically increased half-life. In many peptides, this would be helpful. But when we are intentionally inducing a brief pulse of GH, the DAC isn’t appropriate.

A note about growth hormone side effects: A search for “growth hormone side effects” will many responses with alarming results. It’s worth noting that these are generally associated with the injection of HGH at supraphysiological levels, not the use of secretagogues. By using secretagogues we stay within a range our bodies might experience naturally, thereby reducing the risk of side effects. This doesn’t mean there couldn’t be side effects, consult your trusted health advisor.

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TB-500 aka Thymosin Beta-4

Names: TB-500, Thymosin Beta-4, TB4

 Note: Although some sources assert that TB-500 is identical to TB4 (except being a synthesized version), there may be products sold as TB-500 which are a fragment of TB4. Frag 17-23 is involved with actin binding and cell migration (relevant to muscles), and may at times be sold as TB-500. The vast majority of TB-500 is full sequence TB4, but there may be exceptions.

“A number of active sites on Tβ4 have been identified for some of these activities. Amino acid fragments 1-4 is anti-inflammatory, 1-15 is anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective, and 17-23 is active for cell migration, actin binding, dermal wound healing, angiogenesis, and hair growth.” (Source)

 In this guide ‘TB-500’ will refer to the full TB4 sequence, but some benefits are specific to smaller sequences.

Origin: TB-500 is a synthetic version of TB4, a naturally occurring 43-amino acid peptide present in many human and animal cells.

Impact: A 2015 meta-analysis showed broad applicability of TB-500 in various disease processes, including improvement of tissue regeneration, repair of the heart after heart attack, healing of the brain following stroke, trauma and neurological diseases, kidney and liver diseases, and repair of spinal cord, bone and ligament injuries, as well as reducing consequences of aging and viral infection. The primary mechanisms of action seem to be increasing actin production, increasing angiogenesis, and reducing inflammation. It is often paired with BPC-157.

TB500 is perhaps most often used for muscle repair because it stimulates myoblasts and myocytes (muscle generating cells).

Caution: TB-500 may increase flexibility during use. This may be desirable for tight muscles, but could also exacerbate instability in joints.

Research summaries: Peptide sciences summary, summary of TB-500,

Human Trials and Patent History: link

Videos: Jerry Brainium,

Delivery & dosage: The TMC peptide guide (page 36) recommends 750mcg subq daily for 20 days, for a total of 15mg. A common dosage protocol is 5mg 2x/week (such as Monday and Thursday) for 5 weeks, then 5mg 1x/week for two more weeks. This has a limited track record in humans, so it’s unclear what approach is best.

There is a common conception that TB-500 is only effective in infrequent large doses (as opposed to small daily doses). There are studies that used frequent low doses effectively. Some people use large doses to use the whole 5mg vial at once because it is theorized that TB-500 begins to break down once reconstituted. Estimates vary, but it’s probably best to use it within a week of reconstitution. If you get a BPC-157/TB-500 mix, it would probably be prudent to go with the BPC-157 dosing scheme and accept that the TB-500 may lose a bit of potency over time.

Here is an image from Thymosin b4: a multi-functional regenerative peptide. Basic properties and clinical applications.

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Names: ARA-290, ARA 290, Cibinetide, PH-BSP

 Origin: ARA-290 is a sequence derived from erythropoietin (EPO). EPO stimulates red blood cell production, but has also been found to stimulate blood vessel growth, promote cell survival, alter blood pressure, and produce neuroprotective effects in diabetic neuropathy. ARA-290 offers the neuroprotective and pain relieving effects of EPO without stimulating red blood cell production.

Impact: ARA-290 may reduce neuropathic pain and stimulate small fiber nerve repair which is of particular interest in some floxed individuals. It is a potential stimulator of wound repair in chronic diabetes, an immune modulator, and a potential treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus. Also, it may be beneficial for some types of dysautonomia again which is prevalent in many floxed individuals.  

Research summaries & studies: Peptide sciences summary, Safety and Efficacy of ARA 290 in Sarcoidosis Patients with Symptoms of Small Fiber Neuropathy, ARA 290 Improves Symptoms in Patients with Sarcoidosis-Associated Small Nerve Fiber Loss and Increases Corneal Nerve Fiber Density, ARA 290 Improves Metabolic Control and Neuropathic Symptoms in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Videos: Small Fiber Neuropathy and ARA-290 Results (this video has a slow pace but contains good info).

 Delivery & dosage: There are no established dosages. One study stated “The power analysis was based on data collected from a double-blind trial of the safety and efficacy of ARA 290 in patients with sarcoidosis and symptoms of small fiber neuropathy that received

4 mg ARA 290 SC daily for 28 d.”

Another trial included 1mg, 4mg, and 8mg groups. Due to the sensitive nature of most floxed individuals, it is probably a good idea to start at much lower doses.  It migh be a good idea to attempt to quantify the amount of EPO in one’s body, and infer the dosage amount of ARA-290 based on its size in comparison to EPO. This would offer some context to how much exogenous ARA-290 you may need. 

Note: Epobis is another peptide sequence derived from EPO with similar effects.

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Obtaining Peptides

So maybe you’re intrigued. Here are some options, depending on your comfort level.

  1. The prescription route. This is generally more expensive, but offers confidence that you are using quality medications under the supervision of a doctor.
    1. Ask your current doctor to set up an account with a compounding pharmacy like Tailor Made Compounding that mails products to patients. There may be local compounding pharmacies in your area, or other ways for your doctor to fill the prescription. You may need to direct your doctor towards resources for learning about these medications, as they are unlikely to be familiar with them.
    2. Find a new doctor who prescribes peptides. The International Peptide Society may be able to help you find a physician in your area. There are also clinics which offer online consultations. You could also look for local anti-aging clinics which often prescribe GH secretagogues.
  2. The legally-grey nonprescription route. For those willing to take matters into their own hands, this route is faster and more flexible. Often the products are intended for laboratory use, and will be labeled “not for human consumption”. Although possession of these compounds isn’t illegal (to the best of my understanding), injecting or consuming them may be a violation of the purchase agreement. Here is a list of peptide sources I have heard good things about:
      1. CanLabs
      2. Peptide Sciences

         To be clear: In this world, good businesses go bad quickly. It is your responsibility to vet sources to your personal satisfaction.

  1. The nonprescription (but labeled for human use) route. Although limited, there are some peptide options which don’t require prescriptions and are labeled for human use. This is an area of highly unscrupulous activity, where you could be relieved of your money and get toxic ingredients, so be careful.  Here are some option but none of these are endorsements!
    1. Capsules: Tailor Made Health has BPC-157 capsules available as dietary supplements. They have submitted a GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) filing with the FDA. BioPureSupplements has stated their Liquid Stable BPC is FDA compliant as labeled.
    2. Patches: There are transdermal patches claiming to deliver BPC-157.  There is every reason to be skeptical of this product as the BPC-157 compound is around 1400 Daltons and the size limit for transdermal delivery of a compound is around 400-500 Daltons. This could potentially provide local benefits to the skin but systemic effects would be very dubious. To their credit, the patches contain a robust amount of 1 mg of BPC-157 each.  Nevertheless, the area of peptide suppliers is like the wild west and the pseudo-BPC supplements abound all making grand claims but could have suspicious ingredients.  Research, research, research. 
    3. Topical: There are also creams and lotions which include bioactive peptides with beneficial impacts on skin and collagen. The effects are generally mild and superficial. Reputable products will list the specific peptides. For example, this one includes Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 and Palmitoyl Tripeptide-38. A savvy shopper could then check to learn about the ingredients, and check other sources as needed. The Ordinary Buffet has peptides, and another version includes GHK-cu. There are also small peptides such as GHK-Cu, which are available to purchase as cosmetic ingredients. These could be used to boost a peptide cream, or combined with a transdermal carrier like DMSO. Because GHK-Cu is less than 400 Daltons, we can reasonably expect some will be delivered through the skin. DMSO is indiscriminate in what it transports, so be mindful of applying it to skin with cosmetics or sunblock. Also be mindful of getting it on your hands and what you touch afterwards.
    4. Russian bioregulators. The modern approach to peptides is to identify a specific sequence and synthesize it in a lab. But the original approach was to harvest and extract a variety of peptides from the organs of young animals. This method produced a complex of peptides which could then be used to revitalize the same organs and tissues in humans. Although the general concept may be sound, there are doubts about the oral effectiveness and how delicate peptides survive the refining process. One could try breaking the capsules open under your tongue, where the smaller peptides have a chance to reach the bloodstream. This route is not really recommended but if you have the money and interest… Sources are surprisingly easy to find. If you’re interested in these products check out this bizarre documentary. They start getting to the point around 9:15, but you could watch the whole thing for the full experience.

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If you’re taking the plunge into subcutaneous injection, you’ll need some supplies.

  1. Insulin syringes with needles. 29-30G is a common needle width (higher number = narrower needle). 1cc/1ml is a good volume, ½ inch is probably the best needle length. A shorter needle may actually cause more irritation, but this is an area of debate. There are many sources, including local pharmacies. Here is an example. Make sure the syringes include needles, it’s not always obvious from the packaging. These are one time use, so plan on one syringe per injection. It’s fine to inject multiple peptides at once.
  2. Alcohol wipes. It’s important to sanitize the vials and skin before each injection. Here is an example.
  3. Bacteriostatic water. This water is sterile and contains enough alcohol to inhibit bacterial growth. Other types (such as sterile or distilled) don’t provide the same protection. Prices can vary greatly and there can be shortages from time to time.  This supplier has some of the lowest prices for Bacteriostatic water.

 A note about injections: For some, this can be a daunting process at first. It can sting, and local irritation is common. If your hands are shaky, it could bruise and occasionally it could bleed. These issues will be less common as you become more familiar with the process and develop good technique. Subcutaneous injections, which most peptides are, are much less daunting then IM injections with larger needles. None the less, you may need to have someone help you at first. Try not to overthink it. 

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In general, lyophilized (dry powder) peptides should be kept in a freezer and reconstituted peptides should be kept in the refrigerator and away from heat and UV light. Some guides suggest peptides are extremely vulnerable to mechanical damage, to the point where they shouldn’t be kept in the door of the fridge because of jostling. Although there’s nothing wrong with being gentle, I am dubious to this information. Reconstituted peptides won’t last forever in the fridge, but there is evidence they are quite stable (some peptides will break down faster than others). Peptide Sciences has some very conservative recommendations for storage, explains the possibility of bacterial growth, and discourages multiple freeze-thaw cycles.

In summary:

  • Keep powdered peptides in the freezer.
  • Reconstitute vials as you need them (not all at once).
  • Always use bacteriostatic water to inhibit bacterial growth.
  • Keep reconstituted peptides in the fridge, preferably in a box that keeps airborne bacteria off the seals.
  • Consistently swab seals with alcohol before use to avoid bacterial growth.
  • Don’t freak out if you drop your vial or leave it out and it warms up.
  • Don’t freeze reconstituted peptides.

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How to Dose Peptides

So now you have a vial of peptides, a box of syringes, and some bacteriostatic water. The next step is to reconstitute it and draw the correct amount into a syringe for injection.

Note About Online Peptide Calculators: If you use a peptide calculator make sure you still understand the math or at the very least have someone you know who can help you and double check your math.  Generally, if you understand the math you’ll find you probably don’t need a peptide calculator. Note: if you don’t understand the math you can’t trust the results. Dosage calculation is a non-negotiable skill you must become comfortable with to pursue peptides safely.

Peptide Calculator 

Below, there are calculations in three methods of increasing complexity. Method 1 has the simplest math, but read Method 2 for an explanation of the reconstitution steps.

Essential skills: You must be able to convert milligrams to micrograms, and units to milliliters. A ‘unit’ isn’t a universal measurement, but within this document we are referring to the U-100 standard in which there are 100 units in a ml. If your 1ml syringe has marks indicating a range from 0-100, you can proceed as written. If you have smaller syringes or different markings, you’ll need to make adjustments.


100 units = 1ml

1 unit = .01ml

1mg = 1,000mcg

1mcg = .001mg

Method 1: Reconstituting with the amount of bacteriostatic water required to deliver the desired dose in 10 units.

The goal of reconstitution is to dissolve a certain weight of peptide in a volume of bacteriostatic water. Then to pull an amount of the water into a syringe that will deliver the desired weight of peptide.

The most common approach is to use a specific amount of bacteriostatic water to reconstitute, such as 2 or 3ml. Then pull the appropriate number of units into the syringe. This is convenient for adjusting doses over time, and is explained in Methods 2 & 3.

However, the simplest possible approach is to choose a dosage and the number of units you want to inject, and then reconstitute the peptide with the exact amount of water required for that concentration. This will make it easy to deliver your desired dosage, but adjusting the dose later on may require some math.

To do this you simply divide the total weight of the peptide in the vial by the desired dosage to get the number of doses in the vial. The only requirement is that they be in the same units of measurement.

Then you simply multiply the number of doses by the desired number of units. I recommend 10 units. The result is the number of units to use for reconstitution.

What you need to know:

How many milligrams (mg) in vial?

Converted to mcg:

How many micrograms (mcg) in desired dose?

Multiply mg by 1,000 to get mcg OR divide mcg by 1,000 to get mg. Either way, you must match units of measurement.

Example: 5mg vial, 250mcg dose

5mg/.250mg = 20 doses


5,000mcg/250mcg = 20 doses

20 doses X 10 units = 200 units (2ml)

So you inject 2ml (two full 1ml syringes) into the vial to reconstitute. And pull 10 units out of the vial to deliver the 250mcg dose.

Example: 2mg vial, 250mcg dose

2mg/.250mg = 8 doses


2,000mcg/250mcg = 8 doses

8 doses X 10 units = 80 units (.8ml)

So you inject .8ml (80% of a 1ml syringe) into the vial to reconstitute. And pull 10 units out of the vial to deliver the 250mcg dose.

Example: 2mg vial, 100mcg dose

2mg/.100mg = 20 doses


2,000mcg/100mcg = 20 doses

20 doses X 10 units = 200 units (2ml)

So you inject 2ml (two full 1ml syringes) into the vial to reconstitute. And pull 10 units out of the vial to deliver the 100mcg dose.

Method 2: Using 2ml to dissolve 5mg, and a chart to determine units for injection.

This example uses 2ml to dissolve 5mg. This is generally enough bacteriostatic water to dissolve the peptide, and results in 25mcg per unit. This makes the math easy, as 10 units = 250mcg.

  1. Use an alcohol wipe to sanitize the seals. Also sanitize the skin around the injection site.
  2. Draw 1ml of bacteriostatic water into the syringe.
  3. Inject the 1ml into the vial of peptides. It may be best to aim for the wall of the vial and be gentle, it may not matter at all. Before withdrawing the needle, pull 1ml of air into the syringe. This will equalize the pressure.
  4. Inject the 1ml air into the bacteriostatic water vial, equalizing pressure.
  5. Repeat steps 2-4. You should now have 2ml of bacteriostatic water in the peptide vial.
  6. Gently roll the vial, or wait for the peptides to dissolve.
  7. Use the chart below and draw your desired dosage into the syringe.
  8. Here is a video of subcutaneous injection into belly fat.
Number of units Dosage (when 5mg is dissolved in 2ml)
1 unit 25mcg
2 units 50mcg
3 units 75mcg
4 units 100mcg
5 units 125mcg
6 units 150mcg
7 units 175mcg
8 units 200mcg
9 units 225mcg
10 units 250mcg

Method 3. Using 3ml to dissolve 5mg, and a chart to determine units for injection.

I often use 3ml to dissolve 5mg. It’s always enough to dissolve the peptide, and I prefer working with a little more liquid in each dose. I’ve included more math to give you the tools to navigate other situations.

I’m going to explain what to do if your peptide vial is 5mg (a measurement of weight equivalent to 5,000mcg), your syringes are 1ml (volume equivalent to 1cc), and your desired dosage is 250mcg (equal to .25mg). Steps 6, 7, & 8 are optional, but intended to give you the tools to navigate other scenarios. Math results are rounded for clarity.

  1. Wipe all the seals with an alcohol pad, and the area of skin where you’ll be injecting.
  2. Draw 1ml of bacteriostatic water into the syringe by pulling it back to the 100 units marking.
  3. Gently spray the 1ml into the vial of peptides, preferably aimed at the wall of the vial.
  4. Before removing the syringe, draw 1ml of air into the syringe. This will restore neutral pressure.
  5. Inject the 1ml of air into the bacteriostatic water container (neutralizing pressure), and repeat steps 2-5 until there are 3ml in the peptide vial.
  6. Get out a calculator. We now have 5mg dissolved in 3ml. So divide 5 by 3 to get 1.6667. That’s how many mg are in each 1ml. We want to know what percentage of a ml is necessary to deliver 250mcg (.250mg). So divide .25 by 1.6667 and you’ll get .15, or 15%. Our 1ml syringe has 100 units, so 15% is 15 units, or .15ml
  7. To double check your math, again divide 5mg by 3ml to get 1.6667, but this time multiply it by .15. The result should be .25, representing the .25mg (250mcg) of peptide in 15 units.
  8. Repeat steps 6 & 7 until it clicks. Test yourself with these scenarios if you want to be sure you understand. Answers at the end of the doc (rounded for clarity).
    1. If you dissolve 5mg in 3ml, and want a dosage of 200mcg.. How many units will you draw into the syringe for injection?
    2. If you dissolve 5mg in 3ml, and draw 20 units into the syringe.. How many mcg will that deliver?
    3. If you dissolve 2mg in 2ml, and want a dosage of 250mcg.. How many units will you draw into the syringe for injection?
    4. Oops, you ordered .5ml syringes, the markings go up to 50 units. How many times will you fill the syringe to transfer 2ml?
    5. The syringes you ordered are 1ml/1cc, but the markings go from .1 up to 1.0.. You originally wanted 25 units, what will the equivalent be on this syringe?
  9. Once the peptide is fully dissolved, and you’re confident in your math, draw 15 units into the syringe. This will contain 250mcg of the peptide if the vial had 5mg, and was reconstituted with 3ml.
  10. Use an alcohol wipe on the injection site if you haven’t already. Here is a video of subcutaneous injection into belly fat.
Number of units Dosage (when 5mg is dissolved in 3ml)
3 units 50mcg
6 units 100mcg
9 units 150mcg
12 units 200mcg
15 units 250mcg

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Other Peptides

For every tissue, organ, and bodily system there are peptides we know of, and many more which remain unidentified. In this section I will introduce you to a handful of peptides that may be relevant to general health. Most summaries come from Peptide Sciences. Video links will vary greatly in quality.

Google drives with studies: Collection 1, Collection 2

  • MK-677. MK677 is another option for increasing Growth Hormone levels, without injection. This isn’t a peptide. Let’s call it a “research liquid”. You drink a small amount and it causes several growth hormone pulses over the next 12-24hrs. It’s in the same legal grey area as peptides, so finding a reputable source or a prescription can be a challenge. Here is a study that showed some of the benefits. Keep in mind that muscle growth was mostly seen in the elderly (who have low GH). MK677 is a ghrelin mimetic, and ghrelin is the hormone that makes you feel hungry and causes the sensation many people associate with low blood sugar. In reality, your blood sugar is usually fine, it’s just ghrelin making you feel awful. But blood glucose testing is a good way to confirm. Here’s a better explanation of MK-677, ghrelin, and blood sugar. MK-677 explanation from More Plates More Dates, Sermorelin & Ibutamoren (MK-677) explanation from Anabolic Doc
  • Thymosin Alpha 1 (TA-1) (chronic infection, autoimmune disorders): Thymosin alpha-1 is a naturally occurring peptide fragment that was discovered in 1972. It has since been studied in clinical trials for cystic fibrosis, infection (e.g. tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus), respiratory disorders, chronic hepatitis, and cancer. It is currently approved for use in fighting chronic hepatitis B and C infections in 35 under-developed nations. Immune modulating peptides 
    Some individuals recommend using TA-1 for 6-8 weeks before layering peptides like BPC-157 is histamine/mast cells issues are present or suspected. TA-1 restores immune function and regulates the immune response.
  • GHK-Cu (connective tissue, anti-aging, immune, etc): GHK-Cu is a naturally occurring peptide first isolated from human blood plasma. It has since been identified in urine and saliva as well. Research into GHK-Cu has found the short peptide to have substantial benefits in wound healing and immune function. It has anti-aging properties and has been found to suppress free-radical damage, increase protein synthesis, fight bacteria, and increase the health of skin and skin fibroblasts. Here’s an interesting article about GHK-Cu and tethered cord syndrome. Note: skin treated with GHK-Cu may be temporarily vulnerable to sunburn due to cell turnover. GHK-Cu discussion with Ryan from TMC, Study summary of GHK-Cu benefits.
  • DSIP (sleep, etc): Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) is a short peptide of natural origin. It gains its name from its ability to cause sleep in rabbits and from the fact that it was first isolated in 1977 from the brains of rats during slow-wave sleep. The peptide, however, has a number of physiologic and endocrine roles that are slowly being uncovered as it gains interest among researchers. Right now, it is known that DSIP can alter corticotropin levels, inhibit somatostatin secretion, limit stress, normalize blood pressure, alter sleep patterns, and alter pain perception. It may also have future applications in cancer treatment, depression, and the prevention of free radical damage. DSIP, Dr John Whitcomb
  • LL-37 (immune system, chronic infection): LL-37 is the only known human cathelicidin, which is a large protein family with diverse function. These peptides, which are primarily found in macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (both types of white blood cell), are important for killing bacteria, but have been found to have other dramatic effects as well. The entire class is often referred to as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). LL-37 has been found to play important roles in autoimmune disease, cancer, and wound healing. LL-37 and gut health
  • Peg-MGF (repair & hypertrophy of muscles, etc): Pegylated Mechano-growth factor (PEG-MGF) is a truncated and slightly altered form of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Research shows that it stimulates myoblast (muscle cell) proliferation and differentiation. It has also been explored in research focused on increasing endurance, boosting the function of the immune system, lowering cholesterol, and reducing total body fat. There is also some evidence to suggest that PEG-MGF improves immune function related to healing and could therefore less the time it takes for wounds to heal. Peptides and Biologics – TMC
  • Epithalon/Epitalon (anti-aging, telomeres, immune, sleep, etc): The short-peptide epithalon has been shown to promote proliferation of lymphocytes from the thymus during aging. This is important, as declining expression of lymphocyte interferon gamma is tightly implicated with decreasing immune function in the elderly. It is specifically postulated that epithalon can increase lymphocyte interferon gamma production, thus improving immune function in the elderly.
    An interesting theory of aging has been put forth by Khavinson VKh, that involves epithalon. The idea is that aging is an evolution-determined biological process of changes in expression of genes, which result in impaired synthesis of regulatory chemicals, provoking change and development of disease. Given the Hayflick limit (the number of times a cell line can divide prior to its limitations and demise), and the known telomere-lengthening effects of epithalon, it is thought that the administration of the peptide may overcome these genetic limitations, and promote normalized body functions, that is, extend healthy life. Epitalon and sleep
  • Pinealon (misc): Pinealon is a short peptide consisting of just three amino acids. It is one of a handful of synthetic peptides referred to as peptide bioregulators for their ability to interact directly with DNA to alter gene expression levels. Pinealon has been linked to behavior modification and is thought to help protect a number of cell types, including neurons, against the effects of hypoxia. By direct effect on the pineal gland, pinealon may reduce problems with drug metabolism, circadian rhythm disorders, memory, learning, and more.
  • Thymalin (inflammation, pain, immune, etc): Thymalin is the synthetic version of thymulin, which was isolated from the thymus in 1977. Thymalin has been shown to play a role in regulating inflammation and pain, has neuroprotective effects, and is important in immune function. Early research revealed that thymalin and other extracts of the thymus and pineal gland can prolong life.
  • Fragment 176-191: Fragment 176-191 is a small piece of human growth hormone (hGH) that is sometimes referred to as the lipolytic fragment. Fragment 176-191 earned this latter name due to the fact that laboratory research has shown it to enhance fat burning, particularly in mice genetically engineered to produce large fat stores. Fragment 176-191 has been heavily researched in animal models because even while it preserves the fat-burning effects of hGH, it avoids some other effects of its parent protein such as increasing insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, negatively impacting carbohydrate metabolism, altering insulin sensitivity, increasing long bone growth, and so forth. The targeted effects of fragment 176-191 make it useful for exploring human fat metabolism and may eventually provide the basis for developing anti-obesity medications. Note: this compound could be of interest to those struggling to lose fat, especially those avoiding intense exercise due to illness or injury. It can liberate energy from fat stores, which can then be burned through low intensity exercise instead. Unfortunately the body quickly becomes desensitized, and it’s not a great option for those seeking significant fat loss. Greg Doucette yelling about Frag 176-191. Some people believe the common forms of Frag aren’t structured correctly to elicit the desired results, and it may be useless.
  • Further lists: rough list of several peptides and their effects

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Peptide Math Answers

(Rounded for clarity)

    1. If you dissolve 5mg in 3ml, and want a dosage of 200mcg.. How many units will you draw into the syringe for injection?
      1. 5mg/3ml = 1.6667mg/ml
      2. .2mg/1.6667mg = .12 = 12% = 12 units
    1. If you dissolve 5mg in 3ml, and draw 20 units into the syringe.. How many mcg will that deliver?
      1. 5mg/3ml = 1.6667mg/ml
      2. .2 X 1.6667mg = .3333mg = 333.3mcg
    2. If you dissolve 2mg in 2ml, and want a dosage of 250mcg.. How many units will you draw into the syringe for injection?
      1. 2mg/2ml = 1mg/ml
      2. .25mg/1mg = .25 = 25% = 25 units
    3. Oops, you ordered .5ml syringes, the markings go up to 50 units. How many times will you fill the syringe to transfer 2ml?
      1. 2ml/.5ml = 4
    4. The syringes you ordered are 1ml/1cc, but the markings are: .1, .2, .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .8, .9, 1.0.. You originally wanted 25 units, what will the equivalent be on this syringe?
      1. 25 units is equal to .25ml, or halfway between .2 and .3

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