Although it is true to say that Chronic Floxing and is very multi-factorial, fatigue is usually always an ever present problem. Many chronic floxies go on to be officially diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome or, at the very least, suffer from some form of this debilitating condition.   Fatigue, although not exclusive, is a hallmark sign of dysfunctional mitochondria.

Due to the poor quality or plethora of ignorant health care providers in the world, Chronic Floxies have become citizen researchers out of necessity.  They often research cutting edge ways to find something that will boost failing sections of their mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain (ETC). The list(s) below contain various supplements and pharmaceuticals that enterprising individuals have either tried or have researched that can help boost mitochondrial functioning depending on which portion of the ETC is malfunctioning.   

This Hacking Fluoroquinolones article briefly looks at a list of items that can have been found to boost certain complexes of the ETC.  

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Boosters of Mitochondrial Complexes:

Complex I (NADH Dehydrogenase)

Gingko biloba stimulates complexes I and III. Ref: 1
Melatonin stimulates complexes I and IV. Ref: 1
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) stimulates complex I. Ref: 1
Decylubiquinone (co-enzyme Q10 analogue) increases complex I / III and complex II / III activities by 64% and 80% respectively. Ref: 1


Metformin partially inhibits complex I.
Haloperidol inhibits mitochondrial complex I.
Pyrethroids pesticides permethrin and cyhalothrin potent inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I.
Rotenone (an insecticide, pesticide and piscicide) inhibits complex I.
MDMA (“ecstasy”) inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity in mice.
Cocaine inhibits complex I .

Complex II (Succinate Dehydrogenase)

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) boosts complex II in patients with complex II deficiency (but not in healthy controls).Ref: 1
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) stimulates complexes II and IV. Refs: 1 2
Bupropion (Wellbutrin) stimulates complex II in parts of the brain. Ref: 1

Rapamycin (sirolimus) stimulates complex II. Ref: 1
Decylubiquinone (co-enzyme Q10 analogue) increased complex I / III and complex II / III activities by 64% and 80% respectively. Ref: 1


Poliovirus infection inhibits Complex II.

Complex III (Cytochrome C Reductase)

Decylubiquinone (a co-enzyme Q10 analogue) increases complex I/III and complex II/III activities by 64 and 80%, respectively. Ref: 1
Gingko biloba stimulates complexes I and III. Ref: 1
Resveratrol it is not clear whether it increases or decreases complex III. Ref: 1 2 *

*  Several floxies have reported worsening of pain with resveratrol.


Azoxystrobin fungicide inhibits complex III.

Complex IV (Cytochrome C Oxidase)

Methylene blue increases mitochondrial complex IV by 30%. Ref: 1
Deprenyl (selegiline) increases complex IV activity by 42% in the presence of 25 microM deprenyl in a condition of maximal nitric oxide synthase activity. Ref: 1
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) stimulates complexes II and IV. Refs: 1 2

Melatonin stimulates complexes I and IV. Ref: 1
Bezafibrate stimulates complex IV. Ref: 1
Red and infrared light stimulate complex IV cytochrome c oxidase (NASA research). Ref: 1


Malathion (organophosphate pesticide) significantly inhibits mitochondrial complex IV. Ref: 1

Boosters of Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism:

Levamisole increases pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Ref: 1
Dichloroacetate (DCA) increases pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Refs: 1 2
Isoleucine stimulates glucose uptake and consumption in muscle cells. Ref: 1

Supplements That Boost General Mitochondrial Function:

Glutamine protects mitochondrial structure and function in oxygen toxicity.
High doses of nicotinamide prevent oxidative mitochondrial dysfunction in a cellular model and improve motor deficit in a Drosophila model of Parkinson’s.
Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress (ref: 1).
Q10 Take co-enzyme Q10 with food! Q10 facilitates the conversion of nutrients into energy in the mitochondria. So take with meals.
Alpha lipoic acid + acetyl-L-carnitine.
Malic acid.
Coconut oil / MCT oil.

Supplements That Boost Mitochondrial Biogenesis:

Mitochondrial biogenesis is the creation of new mitochondria. There are around a few hundred to a few thousand mitochondria in each cell, and the average lifespan of a mitochondrion is around 2 to 4 weeks, after which it needs replacement with a new mitochondrion (ref: 1). Floxing is not just be linked to reduced mitochondrial function, but also to reduced mitochondrial numbers (ref: 2). This may be due to not enough replacement mitochondria being made. Either way, generating new mitochondria may be a good idea.

Quercetin promotes mitochondrial biogenesis.
Leucine (and Branched Chain Amino Acids).
R-alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine.
Isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, biochanin A).
Hydroxytyrosol (from olive oil, and olive leaf extract). Commercial name: Hidrox.
Pioglitazone (Actos), an antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic drug.
Estradiol (hormone).
Pyrroloquinoline quinone.
Caloric Restriction (fasting) promotes mitochondrial biogenesis.
Cold exposure.
SRT1720 (new drug from Sirtris Pharmaceuticals).
Telmisartan enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in human endothelial cell.
Triiodothyronine (T3).

Special thanks to Hip for tabulating the data.